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  1. NGS has developed a new beta tool for obtaining geodetic information about a passive mark in their database. This column will highlight some features (available as of Oct. 5, 2020) that may be of interest to GNSS users. It provides all of the information about a station in a more user-friendly format. The box titled “Passive Mark Lookup Tool” is an example of the webtool. The tool provides a lot of information so I have separated the output of the tool into several boxes titled “Passive Mark Lookup Tool — A through D.” I will highlight several attributes that I believe will be very useful to users, especially users of leveling-derived and GNSS-derived orthometric heights. I’ve highlighted several attributes in the box titled “Passive Mark Lookup Tool — A” that are important to users such as published coordinates, their datum and source, Geoid18 value, GNSS Useable, and the date of last recovery. All of these values are available on a NGS datasheet but, in my opinion, this provides the information in a more user-friendly format. One calculation that the user can easily compute for marks that have been leveled to and occupied by GNSS equipment, is the difference between the published leveling-derived orthometric height and the computed GNSS-derived orthometric height. This may indicate that the mark has moved since the last time it was leveled to or that its height coordinate has been readjusted since the creation of the published geoid model. The table below provides the calculation using the data from the box titled “Passive Mark Lookup Tool — A.” The calculation [HGNSS = hGNSS — NGeoid18; Difference = HGNSS — HNAVD 88] has been described in several of my previous columns In this example, the difference between the GNSS-derived orthometric height and the Published NAVD 88 height is 6.1 cm. NGS is looking for comments on this beta webtool so if users would like this computation added to the tool, they should send a comment to NGS using the link provided on the site (This is a beta product. NGS is interested in your feedback concerning its function and usability as well as how users would like to interact with NGS datasheet information in the future. Email us at [email protected]) So, the user should ask the question, did the station move since the last time it was leveled? Another attribute that would be nice to be part of this tool is was the station used to create the hybrid geoid model. As of Oct. 5, 2020, users have to go to the Geoid18 webpage to get the information. The excel file and shapefiles provides whether the station was used to create the Geoid18 model. In the case of this example, KK1531, CHAMBERS, the mark was not used in the creation of Geoid18 so NGS felt that the station may have moved and/or the GPS on Bench Mark residual was large relative to its neighbors. See NGS’s technical report on Geoid18 for more information on the creation of Geoid18. The GPS on Bench Mark residual analysis was described in several of my previous columns (see “The differences between Geoid18 values and NAD 83, NAVD 88 values” and “NGS 2018 GPS on BMs program in support of NAPGD2022 — Part 6” for examples). The webtool provides a map depicting the location of the station, photos (if available), and previously published, superseded values of the mark. See the box titled “Passive Mark Lookup Tool — B.” https://www.gpsworld.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/zilkoski-beta-tool-column-image-2.jpg source: https://www.gpsworld.com/ngs-releases-beta-tool-for-obtaining-geodetic-information/
  2. Earth is known as the “Blue Planet” due to the vast bodies of water that cover its surface. With an over 70% of our planet’s surface covered by water, ocean depths offer basins with an abundance of features, such as underwater plateaus, valleys, mountains and trenches. The average depth of the oceans and seas surrounding the continents is around 3,500 meters and parts deeper than 200 meters are called "deep sea". This visualization reveals Earth’s rich bathymetry, by featuring the ETOPO1 1-Arc Minute Global Relief Model. ETOPO1 integrates land topography and ocean bathymetry and provides complete global coverage between -90° to 90° in latitude and -180° to 180° in longitude. The visualization simulates an incremental drop of 10 meters of the water’s level on Earth’s surface. As time progresses and the oceans drain, it becomes evident that underwater mountain ranges are bigger in size and trenches are deeper in comparison to those on dry land. While water drains quickly closer to continents, it drains slowly in our planet’s deepest trenches. These trenches start to become apparent below 5,000 meters, as the majority of the oceans have been drained of water. In the Atlantic Ocean, there are two trenches that stand out. In the southern hemisphere, the South Sandwich trench is located between South America and Antarctica, while in the northern hemisphere the Puerto Rico trench in the eastern Caribbean is its deepest part. The majority of the world’s deepest trenches though are located in the Pacific Ocean. In the southern hemisphere, the Peru-Chile or Atacama trench is located off the coast of Peru and the Tonga Trench in the south-west Pacific Ocean between New Zealand and Tonga. In the northern hemisphere, the Philippines Trench is located east of the Philippines, and in the northwest Pacific Ocean we can see a range of trenches starting from the north, such as the Kuril-Kamchatka, and moving to the south all the way to Mariana’s trench that drains last. It is worth recalling that the altitude values of ETOPO1 range between 8,333 meters (topography) and -10,833 meters (bathymetry). This range of altitude values reflects the limitations of the visualization, since Challenger Deep - the Earth’s deepest point located at Mariana's trench - has been measured to a maximum depth of 10,910 meters and Mount Everest the highest peak above mean sea level is at 8,848 meters. In this visualization the vertically exaggerated by 60x ETOPO1 relief model, utilizes a gray-brown divergent colormap to separate the bathymetry from topography. The bathymetry is mapped to brownish hues (tan/shallow to brown/deep) and the dry land to greys (dark gray/low to white/high). A natural consequence of this mapping is that areas of the highest altitude are mapped to whitish hues, as they are almost always covered in snow. Furthermore, in an effort to help viewer’s eyes detect surface details that would otherwise be unnoticeable, the topography and bathymetry have been rendered with ambient occlusion - a shadowing technique that in this particular visualization darkens features and regions that present changes in altitude, such as mountains, ocean crevices and trenches. download: https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a004800/a004823/OceanDrain_Colorbar_1920x1080_30fps.mp4 https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a004800/a004823/OceanDrain_1920x1080_30fps.mp4 source: https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/4823
  3. this response basically in every big software company, if you got error on windows for example, you will get pretty much same sh*t, ahahahaha I prefer search on 3rd party forum, like stakeoverflow or such....
  4. A recently unclassified CIA drone program provides us with perspective on UAS development. Also, U.S. high-altitude surveillance capabilities are being tested, another record has been achieved, and an award for the U.S. Air Force space plane. 1960s CIA Bird-Drone Back when the U.S. was flying U2 spy planes over the Soviet Union and Gary Powers was on Russian TV after being shot down, the CIA got to thinking of another approach for gathering airborne intelligence. Project Aquiline was an early drone project aimed at making overflight much less conspicuous — because the drone was built to resemble a bird. With a two-stroke engine driving a pusher-propeller and an 8-foot wingspan, five prototypes were built and tested through 1967-68. The concept was to fly at lower altitudes than the U2, carrying equivalent camera and electronic surveillance equipment, but to be very difficult to observe from the ground. Although a two-stroke engine might have been somewhat noisier than a large bird, later phases of the program envisaged a miniature nuclear power source which presumably would have been much quieter with a relatively huge range. The project began in 1966, and prototypes began operational testing in 1968. The prototypes established a range of around 130 miles, took high-resolution images and successfully returned to the control site. However, with many stages of development still to go (the cost to complete was maybe too high), the project was canned in November 1971. Maybe this initial “bird” concept is where the name of today’s high-altitude, long-endurance Global Hawk drone originated — who knows? NASA High-Altitude Long-Endurance (HALE) UAVs But the U.S. government seems to have other objectives than just high-altitude reconnaissance. NASA has operated the Global Hawk drone for science missions for a number of years, alongside the U-2 and ER-2 high-altitude manned aircraft. Armstrong Flight Research Center operates two Global Hawks with support from Northrop Grumman out of Edwards Air Force Base. Global Hawk is flown with a pre-loaded mission profile at upwards of 60,000 feet, sometimes for as long as 24 hours and more than 8,000 miles. Nevertheless, the aircraft is monitored over both satellite and terrestrial links, with direct sensor payload access throughout. Global Hawk is powered by a Rolls-Royce AE3007H turbofan engine. It has a wingspan exceeding 116 feet, measures 44 feet from nose to tail, has a gross takeoff weight of 25,250 pounds and carries a 1,500-pound payload. But this aircraft is massive compared to another recent high-flying project that NASA funded through a Phase I and II Small Business Innovation Research/Technology Transfer (SBIR/SBTT) program. With the help of NASA’s Ames Research Center, Swift Engineering in San Clemente, California, completed a two-hour flight test on July 7 of its High-Altitude Long-Endurance (HALE) UAS, aiming to join the group of companies already in the high-altitude UAV club. The 72-foot wingspan, solar-powered HALE weighs <180 pounds, carries a 10-15-pound payload and is destined to fly at up to 70,000 feet for more than 30 days. This HALE aircraft is expected to complement existing NASA observation platforms and provide unique material alongside existing satellite data. Swift Engineering has been working with NASA Ames since 2016 on a proof-of-concept solar-powered UAS aimed at sustained flight for a month or more. Swift researched solar panels and high-power, multiple-cycle rechargeable battery technologies to develop a system that could survive harsh temperatures as well as the radiation encountered at high altitude. During the first of a series of flight tests at Spaceport America in New Mexico on July 7, operations at low altitude were completed to verify systems, aerodynamic control and power-system models. The July 7 flight was the first in a series to collect data and further validate the design. With NASA, Swift has developed a UAS to not only meet observation objectives, but also one that aligns with the Federal Aviation Administration’s view of HALE deployment and maintenance during extended flights. For the test flight, the vehicle carried a NASA FluidCam for science missions, with a focus on mapping coastal reef systems. NASA teams are exploring how aircraft such as Swift’s could perform as pseudo-satellites for air-quality monitoring, image coastal zones, map landslides and geologically active regions, and for real-time forestry and agricultural monitoring. The next step in the development is expected to be a Phase III series of scientific observations at high altitude for days and even weeks. Boeing X-37B Team Wins Collier Trophy The Air Force/Boeing X-37B autonomous space plane has won the Collier Trophy for best in U.S. aeronautics/astronautics performance and safety in 2019. The X-37B set a new 780-day on-orbit record and descended through the controlled U..S National Airspace System (NAS) to land at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. Initially launched in 2010, the reliable, reusable and unmanned X-37B has provided space access and subsequent analysis for a large number of key experiments. The space plane has now broken its previous on-orbit record of 718 days and has orbited for 2,865 days and more than 1 billion miles in total. Originally designed for only 270 days in space, the X-37B has established endurance records in every one of its last five flights. Since 1911, recipients of the Collier Trophy have included Orville Wright, the Apollo 11 lunar landing team, the International Space Station team, the U.S. Navy F/A-18E/F Super Hornet team and the Boeing 787, 777 and 747 passenger aircraft teams. Intelligence Gathering News about the 1960 CIA drone developments, aimed at gathering unobserved photo reconnaissance intelligence, provide new perspective on NASA’s current-day use of high-altitude observation assets. These are the same types of assets that the U.S. currently uses for intelligence gathering, despite being recently intercepted by Russian jets off the coast of Alaska. It makes for interesting aspects of drone history, along with new aspects of (very) high-altitude unmanned capabilities. source: https://www.gpsworld.com/1960s-cia-drone-bird-project-a-predecessor-to-nasa-global-hawk/
  5. Current u-blox GNSS platforms — from u-blox M8 and beyond — support the recently completed BeiDou navigation satellite system modernizations, improving the availability of GNSS positioning services. The opening ceremony of the BeiDou-3 global navigation satellite system (GNSS) was held in Beijing on July 31, officially celebrating the expansion of coverage offered by the critical Chinese space infrastructure to a global user base. As a global supplier of GNSS positioning and wireless communication technologies, u-blox has been driving technological innovation and deeply involved in the Chinese market for many years. Tests conducted across China and Europe have shown that including the BeiDou system can improve the positioning accuracy of GNSS receivers when multiple navigation satellite systems are tracked concurrently. When signals are partially obstructed, positioning accuracy can be significantly improved by incorporating the BeiDou system. Data shows that in 2019, the overall output value of the Chinese satellite navigation and location service industry reached nearly 345 billion yuan, an increase of 14.4% over 2018, with the output value expected to exceed 400 billion yuan in 2020. Additional Services Provided by BeiDou The BeiDou system provides a suite of additional services, including satellite and ground-based augmentation services, precise single-point positioning, precise timing and global short message services, laying a solid foundation for BeiDou’s ubiquitous navigation and tracking applications. Applications of GNSS technology continue to diversify, leveraging the all-weather, all-time, tracking, navigation and timing services it offers. GNSS technology is penetrating deeper into traditional industrial verticals, such as agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery, power and energy, as well as in railway and air transportation, including their infrastructure construction and management. At the same time, GNSS technology has become an indispensable and “smart” factor in emerging application fields such as the internet of things and the “internet of vehicles,” as well as in innovative applications such as autonomous driving, automatic parking and automatic logistics, and is now commonplace in many industrial and consumer use cases. “U-blox has been closely following the modernization of the BeiDou navigation system and is ready to work with partners in various industries to promote the expansion of industry applications, expand emerging markets and jointly create a green industry ecosystem,” said Hamilton Chen, China country manager at u-blox. source: https://www.gpsworld.com/u-blox-technology-platforms-support-beidou-3/
  6. until they fix the performance issue, i dont see any advantages on ArcGIS Pro.... I still can use ArcGIS desktop for the daily task, no need to use fancy latest product
  7. It was just announced that June was the 3rd hottest on record, Johns Hopkins put the number of COVID-19 cases at 13-million, and over 300,000 sq km of protected areas were created last month. These are all indicators of the planet’s vitality, but traditionally you’d need to bookmark three different websites to keep track of these and other metrics. In partnership with Microsoft, National Geographic, and the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network, Esri is gathering these and other topics into the ArcGIS Living Atlas Indicators of the Planet (Beta). Leveraging the near real-time information already contributed to Living Atlas by organizations such as NOAA, UN Environment Programme, and US Geological Survey, ArcGIS Living Atlas Indicators of the Planet draws upon authoritative sources for the latest updates on 18 topics, with more being developed. In addition to the summary statistics provided by the GeoCards, there are a series of maps and resources to better understand each issue and learn how to integrate timely data into decision making, along with stories on progress towards building a sustainable planet. ArcGIS Living Atlas Indicators of the Planet was developed using ArcGIS Experience Builder and is in its Beta release while additional capabilities are being implemented. This Experience Builder template can be customized for your own topics of interest. All of the underlying layers, maps, and apps are available from this Content Group. link: https://experience.arcgis.com/experience/003f05cc447b46dc8818640c38b69b83
  8. all done, please be more active, or system will automatically kick you out again
  9. A joint NASA-USGS initiative has created the first worldwide map of the causes of change in mangrove habitats between 2000 and 2016. Mangrove trees can be found growing in the salty mud along the Earth’s tropical and subtropical coastlines. Mangroves are vital to aquatic ecosystems due to their ability to prevent soil erosion and store carbon. Mangroves also provide critical habitat to multiple marine species such as algae, barnacles, oysters, sponges, shrimp, crabs, and lobsters. Mangroves are threatened by both human and natural causes. Human activities in the form of farming and aquaculture and natural stressors such as erosion and extreme weather have both driven mangrove habitat loss. The joint study analyzed over one million Landsat images captured between 2000 and 2016 to create the first-ever global map visualizing the drivers of mangrove loss. Causes of mangrove loss were mapped at a resolution of 30 meters. Researchers found that 62% of mangrove loss during the time period studied was due to land use changes, mostly from conversion to aquaculture and agriculture. Roughly 80% of the loss was concentrated in six Southeast Asian nations: Indonesia, Myanmar, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. Mangrove loss due to human activities did decline 73% between 2000 and 2016. Mangrove loss due to natural events also decreased but at a lessor rate than human-led activities. Map and graphs showing global distribution of mangrove loss and its drivers. From the study: “(a) The longitudinal distribution of total mangrove loss and the relative contribution of its primary drivers. Different colors represent unique drivers of mangrove loss. (b) The latitudinal distribution of total mangrove loss and the relative contribution of its primary drivers. (c‐g) Global distribution of mangrove loss and associated drivers from 2000 to 2016 at 1°×1° resolution, with the relative contribution (percentage) of primary drivers per continent: (c) North America, (d) South America, (e) Africa, (f) Asia, (g) Australia together with Oceania.” links: https://www.mangrovelossdrivers.app/
  10. Planet is set to launch three more new SkySats (SkySats 19-21) into Low Earth Orbit on August 18th (date subject to change), rounding out the fleet of SkySats already in operations and joining SkySats 16-18 that successfully launched aboard the SpaceX Falcon 9 in June. Planet SkySats 1-15 operate in Sun Synchronous Orbits, a specific type of Low Earth Orbit that results in the Earth’s surface always being illuminated by the Sun at the same angle when the satellite is capturing imagery. Half of the SkySats currently pass overhead in a morning crossing plane, while the other half moves in an afternoon crossing plane, so together they provide the twice-daily coverage of anywhere on Earth. Both sets of new SkySats, 16-18 and 19-21, will operate in a “mid-inclination” orbit of 53 degrees that complements the sun synchronous fleet, and will offer more targeted coverage and imaging capacity in the latitude bands between +53 degrees and -53 degrees where the majority of human activity occurs. By taking advantage of SpaceX’s rideshare program, we were able to get these satellites launched much faster compared to a dedicated launch. In addition, by splitting the payload across two launches, we’re able to phase the mid-inclination SkySats into their respective planes much faster as well, all of which results in Planet’s customers benefiting from these enhanced products much sooner than any other provider can offer. SkySats 19-21 will be launched aboard SpaceX’s Falcon 9, a two-stage reusable rocket that has successfully flown satellites and cargo over 80 times to orbit. They will do so as rideshare payloads on SpaceX’s Starlink satellites, and will launch from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Base in Florida. The rapid launch of SkySats 16-21, as well as the development of our enhanced 50 cm imagery, are just a few examples of how Planet continues to push the envelope to provide industry-leading geospatial offerings that continuously improve over time. source: https://www.planet.com/pulse/skysats-19-21-to-launch-on-spacex-falcon-9-rideshare-mission/
  11. NASA’s ARIA team, in collaboration with the Earth Observatory of Singapore, used satellite data to map the extent of likely damage following a massive explosion in Beirut. Dark red pixels represent the most severe damage. Areas in orange are moderately damaged, and areas in yellow are likely to have sustained somewhat less damage. Each colored pixel represents an area of 30 meters (33 yards). The map contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data processed by ESA (European Space Agency) and analyzed by ARIA team scientists at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, and Earth Observatory of Singapore. Based in Pasadena, California, Caltech manages JPL for NASA. Scientists are using satellite data to map ground surface changes in the aftermath of the recent explosion. NASA’s Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) team, in collaboration with the Earth Observatory of Singapore, used satellite-derived synthetic aperture radar data to map the likely extent of damage from a massive August 4 explosion in Beirut. Synthetic aperture radar data from space shows ground surface changes from before and after a major event like an earthquake. In this case, it is being used to show the devastating result of an explosion. On the map, dark red pixels — like those present at and around the Port of Beirut — represent the most severe damage. Areas in orange are moderately damaged and areas in yellow are likely to have sustained somewhat less damage. Each colored pixel represents an area of 30 meters (33 yards). Maps like this one can help identify badly damaged areas where people may need assistance. The explosion occurred near the city’s port. It claimed more than 150 lives and is estimated to have caused billions of dollars’ worth of damage. The map contains modified Copernicus Sentinel data processed by ESA (European Space Agency) and analyzed by ARIA team scientists at NASA JPL, Caltech, and Earth Observatory of Singapore. Located in Pasadena, California, Caltech manages JPL for NASA. source: https://scitechdaily.com/nasa-advanced-rapid-imaging-satellite-maps-blast-damage-beirut-explosion-aftermath/
  12. next time be more active , this forum check every 180 days automatically for inactivity
  13. A Long March-2D carrier rocket, carrying the Gaofen-9 04 satellite, is launched from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China, Aug. 6, 2020. China successfully launched a new optical remote-sensing satellite from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center at 12:01 p.m. Thursday (Beijing Time). (Photo by Wang Jiangbo/Xinhua) JIUQUAN, Aug. 6 (Xinhua) -- China successfully launched a new optical remote-sensing satellite from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China at 12:01 p.m. Thursday (Beijing Time). The satellite, Gaofen-9 04, was sent into orbit by a Long March-2D carrier rocket. It has a resolution up to the sub-meter level. The satellite will be mainly used for land surveys, city planning, land right confirmation, road network design, crop yield estimation and disaster prevention and mitigation. It will also provide information for the development of the Belt and Road Initiative. The same carrier rocket also sent the Gravity & Atmosphere Scientific Satellite (Q-SAT) into space. The Q-SAT satellite, developed by Tsinghua University, will help with the satellite system design approach and orbital atmospheric density measurement, among others. Thursday's launch was the 342nd mission of the Long March rocket series. source: http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2020-08/06/c_139269788.htm
  14. The St. Patrick Bay ice caps on the Hazen Plateau of northeastern Ellesmere Island in Nunavut, Canada, have disappeared, according to NASA satellite imagery. National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) scientists and colleagues predicted via a 2017 paper in The Cryosphere that the ice caps would melt out completely within the next five years, and recent images from NASA's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) have confirmed that this prediction was accurate. Mark Serreze, director of NSIDC, Distinguished Professor of Geography at the University of Colorado Boulder, and lead author on the paper, first set foot on the St. Patrick Bay ice caps in 1982 as a young graduate student. He visited the ice caps with his advisor, Ray Bradley, of the University of Massachusetts. "When I first visited those ice caps, they seemed like such a permanent fixture of the landscape," said Serreze. "To watch them die in less than 40 years just blows me away." In 2017, scientists compared ASTER satellite data from July 2015 to vertical aerial photographs taken in August of 1959. They found that between 1959 and 2015, the ice caps had been reduced to only five percent of their former area, and shrank noticeably between 2014 and 2015 in response to the especially warm summer in 2015. The ice caps are absent from ASTER images taken on July 14, 2020. The St. Patrick Bay ice caps were one-half of a group of small ice caps on the Hazen Plateau, which formed and likely attained their maximum extents during the Little Ice Age, perhaps several centuries ago. The Murray and Simmons ice caps, which make up the second half of the Hazen Plateau ice caps, are located at a higher elevation and are therefore faring better, though scientists predict that their demise is imminent as well. "We've long known that as climate change takes hold, the effects would be especially pronounced in the Arctic," said Serreze. "But the death of those two little caps that I once knew so well has made climate change very personal. All that's left are some photographs and a lot of memories." source: https://phys.org/news/2020-07-canadian-ice-caps-scientific.html
  15. Despite the controversy related to China-India border, this articles show us the importance of Remote Sensing as a strategic tools on Politic and Military The recent deaths of at least 20 soldiers along the contested border at Ladakh between India and China represents the largest loss of life from a skirmish between the two countries since the clashes in 1967 that left hundreds dead. It also highlights the tensions that have been building along the Line of Actual Control since early May. Using this satellite imagery, I will try to illustrate the approximate reality on the ground. My analysis disproves some of the more extreme claims that have been made about the incident, such as that thousands of Chinese soldiers have crossed the LAC and encamped in Indian-controlled territory. The satellite pictures also highlight the obvious threats to a peaceful status quo that exist along the western sector of India’s border with China. The analysis includes evidence that strongly suggests People’s Liberation Army forces have been regularly crossing into Indian territory temporarily on routine patrol routes. The details of this week’s clashes are still murky. But based on recent satellite imagery and media reporting, it appears the bulk of casualties were the result of soldiers falling during hand-to-hand fighting along a steep ridgeline that marks the LAC. The small area that is at the heart of this dispute appears to straddle the LAC and likely houses less than 50 Chinese troops. Neither Beijing nor Delhi considers the loosely demarcated line that separates the two countries in Ladakh to be an authoritative border. It approximates areas of territorial control established at the end of the 1962 Sino-Indian War when China withdrew from much of its captured territory on the Himalayan plateau. The border standoff at Ladakh has become a politically charged issue in India. The Indian government has revealed few details about the situation over the past few weeks. Former Indian Army officers, however, have been providing information to journalists and the media have been consistently painting a picture of a substantial conflict, often involving claims of the incursion of 10,000 PLA troops into undisputed Indian territory. The reality is less dramatic, but does represent a significant change to the status quo along the India–China border that threatens to escalate. By analysing satellite imagery from late May and early June it’s possible to make informed judgements about the positions of forces at multiple hotspots. Along the India–China border there are three key areas that produce the majority of tension between the two countries: Arunachal Pradesh; Sikkim and nearby Doklam (the site of a major skirmish in 2017 that saw Indian troops enter Bhutanese territory to prevent the completion of a strategic road being built by China); and Ladakh. The build-up of troops and military positions in recent months has been mostly in the Ladakh sector. Developments have occurred in three strategic areas along the LAC: the Galwan River Valley, where this week’s deadly clashes occurred; Hot Springs, where satellite evidence suggests that Chinese forces have regularly entered Indian territory; and the Pangong Tso. complete story : https://www.aspistrategist.org.au/satellite-images-show-positions-surrounding-deadly-china-india-clash/ https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/latest-satellite-images-show-situation-far-from-normal-at-ladakh-s-pangong-tso-1706373-2020-07-31
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